In the introduction vignette, we reviewed some basic IPM theory and worked through examples of simple IPMs, which only model a single, continuously distributed state variable. General IPMs are distinguished from simple ones in that they incorporate multiple state variables and/or include transitions between continuous and discrete states. These state variables could be, for example, a continuous measure of coral colony surface area and a discrete state to denote aspergillosis infection (in Bruno et al. 2011), a mixture of trees classified by basal diameter and a discrete state for seeds in a seed bank (in Crandall & Knight 2017), or a mixture of multiple continuous and discrete state (e.g. Aikens & Roach 2014). A more comprehensive definition is provided in Ellner & Rees (2006) and in Ellner, Childs & Rees, Chapter 6 (2016).

We’ll start with the least complicated of the general IPMs and build progressively from there. If you’ve already read through the introduction vignette, then most of this will look pretty familiar. If not, it is probably best to at least skim the first few sections before proceeding here.

As noted above, we are now working with models that may have multiple continuous state variables and/or discrete states to describe the demography of our species. Thus, we need to add some more information to the model’s definition in order to fully capture these additional demographic details.

Relative to how we define simple models in `ipmr`

, there are now two new bits:

Each kernel that has an integration requires that

`d_statevariable`

get appended to the kernel`formula`

. This is equivalent to the “dz” in \(\int_L^U K(z',z) n(z,t) \mathrm{dz}\).`ipmr`

automatically generates this variable internally, so there is no need to define it in the`data_list`

or`define_domains()`

, we can just add it any of the formula(s) that we want to. We skipped this step in the simple IPMs because it gets appended automatically. Unfortunately, it is less easy to infer the correct state variable to`d_z`

with for general IPMs where there may be many continuous and/or discrete states.The implementation arguments list can now have different values in the

`state_start`

and`state_end`

slots. This is demonstrated in a separate chunk below.

This example will use an IPM for *Ligustrum obtusifolium*, a tree species that is now invasive in North America. Data were collected outside of St. Louis, Missouri, and the full model is described in Levin et al. 2019. The IPM consists of a single discrete stage (seed bank, abbreviated `b`

) and a single continuous state (height, abbreviated `ht`

/\(z,z'\)). The census timing was such that all seeds must enter the seed bank. They can either germinate in the next year, or they can die (so `stay_discrete`

= 0). Thus, the full model takes the following form:

\(n(z', t + 1) = \int_L^U P(z', z) n(z,t)d\mathrm{z} + b(t) * \int_L^U leave\_discrete(z') \mathrm{dz'}\)

\(b(t + 1) = \int_L^Ugo\_discrete(z) n(z,t)d\mathrm{z}+ stay\_discrete\)

\(P(z',z) = s(z) * G(z',z)\)

\(go\_discrete(z) = f_s(z) * f_r(z) * g_i\)

\(leave\_discrete(z') = e_p * f_d(z')\)

\(stay\_discrete = 0\)

\(f_G\) and \(f_{r_d}\) denote Normal probability density functions. The vital rates functions and example code to fit them are:

survival (

`s`

): A logistic regression with a squared termExample code:

`glm(surv ~ ht_1 + I(ht_1)^2, data = my_surv_data, family = binomial())`

Mathematical form: \(Logit(s(z)) = \alpha_s + \beta_{s,1} * z + \beta_{s,2} * z^2\)

growth (

`g`

): A linear regressionexample code:

`lm(ht_2 ~ ht_1, data = grow_data)`

Mathematical form:

\(\mu_G = \alpha_G + \beta_G * z\)

\(G(z',z) = f_G(\mu_G, \sigma_G)\)

flowering probability (

`r_r`

): A logistic regressionexample code:

`glm(repro ~ ht_1, data = my_repro_data, family = binomial())`

Mathematical form: \(Logit(r_r(z)) = \alpha_{r_r} + \beta_{r_r} * z\)

seed production (

`r_s`

): A Poisson regressionexample code:

`glm(seeds ~ ht_1, data = my_seed_data, family = poisson())`

Mathematical form: \(Log(r_s(z)) = \alpha_{r_s} + \beta_{r_s} * z\)

Recruit size distribution (

`r_d`

): A normal distribution with mean`r_d_mu`

and standard deviation`r_d_sd`

.example code:

`r_d_mu <- mean(my_recr_data$ht_2, na.rm = TRUE)`

and`r_d_sd <- sd(my_rer_data$ht_2, na.rm = TRUE)`

.Mathematical form: \(r_d(z') = f_{r_d}(\mu_{r_d}, \sigma_{r_d})\)

germination (

`g_i`

) and establishment (`e_p`

) are constants. The code below assumes we have our data in long format (each seed get its own row) and that successful germination/establishment is coded as 1s, failures are 0s, and seeds we don’t know the fate of for whatever reason are`NA`

s.example code:

`g_i <- mean(my_germ_data, na.rm = TRUE)`

and`e_p <- mean(my_est_data, na.rm = TRUE)`

Mathematical form: \(g_i = 0.5067, e_p = 0.15\)

Below is the code to implement this model. First, we define our our parameters in a list.

```
library(ipmr)
# Set up the initial population conditions and parameters
<- list(
data_list g_int = 5.781,
g_slope = 0.988,
g_sd = 20.55699,
s_int = -0.352,
s_slope = 0.122,
s_slope_2 = -0.000213,
r_r_int = -11.46,
r_r_slope = 0.0835,
r_s_int = 2.6204,
r_s_slope = 0.01256,
r_d_mu = 5.6655,
r_d_sd = 2.0734,
e_p = 0.15,
g_i = 0.5067
)
```

Next, we set up two functions to pass into the model. These perform the inverse logit transformations for the probability of flowering model (`r_r`

/\(r_r(z)\)) and survival model (`s`

/\(s(z)\)).

```
# We'll set up some helper functions. The survival function
# in this model is a quadratic function, so we use an additional inverse logit function
# that can handle the quadratic term.
<- function(int, slope, sv) {
inv_logit 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv)))
}
<- function(int, slope, slope_2, sv) {
inv_logit_2 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv + slope_2 * sv ^ 2)))
}
```

Now, we’re ready to begin making the IPM kernels. We change the `sim_gen`

argument of `init_ipm()`

to `"general"`

.

```
<- init_ipm(sim_gen = "general", di_dd = "di", det_stoch = "det") %>%
general_ipm define_kernel(
name = "P",
# We add d_ht to formula to make sure integration is handled correctly.
# This variable is generated internally by make_ipm(), so we don't need
# to do anything else.
formula = s * g * d_ht,
# The family argument tells ipmr what kind of transition this kernel describes.
# it can be "CC" for continuous -> continuous, "DC" for discrete -> continuous
# "CD" for continuous -> discrete, or "DD" for discrete -> discrete.
family = "CC",
# The rest of the arguments are exactly the same as in the simple models
g = dnorm(ht_2, g_mu, g_sd),
g_mu = g_int + g_slope * ht_1,
s = inv_logit_2(s_int, s_slope, s_slope_2, ht_1),
data_list = data_list,
states = list(c('ht')),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
'g')
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = "go_discrete",
formula = r_r * r_s * g_i * d_ht,
# Note that now, family = "CD" because it denotes a continuous -> discrete transition
family = 'CD',
r_r = inv_logit(r_r_int, r_r_slope, ht_1),
r_s = exp(r_s_int + r_s_slope * ht_1),
data_list = data_list,
# Note that here, we add "b" to our list in states, because this kernel
# "creates" seeds entering the seedbank
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = 'stay_discrete',
# In this case, seeds in the seed bank either germinate or die, but they
# do not remain for multiple time steps. This can be adjusted as needed.
formula = 0,
# Note that now, family = "DD" becuase it denotes a discrete -> discrete transition
family = "DD",
# The only state variable this operates on is "b", so we can leave "ht"
# out of the states list
states = list(c('b')),
evict_cor = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
# Here, the family changes to "DC" because it is the discrete -> continuous
# transition
name = 'leave_discrete',
# We append d_ht here as well, because we need to integrate over the
# the recruit size distribution.
formula = e_p * r_d * d_ht,
r_d = dnorm(ht_2, r_d_mu, r_d_sd),
family = 'DC',
data_list = data_list,
# Again, we need to add "b" to the states list
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
'r_d')
)
```

We’ve now defined all of the kernels, next are the implementation details. These also differ somewhat from simple IPMs. The key difference in the implementation arguments list lies in the `state_start`

and `state_end`

of each kernel, and is related to the `family`

argument of each kernel. Kernels that begin with one state and end in a different state (e.g. moving from seed bank to a plant) will have different entries in the `state_start`

and `state_end`

slots. It is very important to get these correct, as `ipmr`

uses this information to generate the model iteration procedure automatically (i.e. code corresponding to Equations 1-2).

```
<- general_ipm %>%
general_ipm define_impl(
list(
P = list(int_rule = "midpoint",
state_start = "ht",
state_end = "ht"),
go_discrete = list(int_rule = "midpoint",
state_start = "ht",
state_end = "b"),
stay_discrete = list(int_rule = "midpoint",
state_start = "b",
state_end = "b"),
leave_discrete = list(int_rule = "midpoint",
state_start = "b",
state_end = "ht")
) )
```

An alternative to the list above is to use `make_impl_args_list()`

. The chunk above and the chunk below generate equivalent `proto_ipm`

objects.

```
<- general_ipm %>%
general_ipm define_impl(
make_impl_args_list(
kernel_names = c("P", "go_discrete", "stay_discrete", "leave_discrete"),
int_rule = c(rep("midpoint", 4)),
state_start = c('ht', "ht", "b", "b"),
state_end = c('ht', "b", "b", 'ht')
) )
```

The rest is the same as the simple IPM. We can use our pre-defined functions in `make_ipm`

, and we can use pre-defined variables in `define_domains`

. We’ll create variables for the upper (`U`

) and lower (`L`

) size bounds for the population, and the number of meshpoints for integration (`n`

). We also define initial population vectors for both `b`

and `ht`

.

```
# The lower and upper bounds for the continuous state variable and the number
# of meshpoints for the midpoint rule integration. We'll also create the initial
# population vector from a random uniform distribution
<- 1.02
L <- 624
U <- 500
n
set.seed(2312)
<- runif(500)
init_pop_vec <- 20
init_seed_bank
<- general_ipm %>%
general_ipm define_domains(
# We can pass the variables we created above into define_domains
ht = c(L, U, n)
%>%
) define_pop_state(
# We can also pass them into define_pop_state
pop_vectors = list(
n_ht = init_pop_vec,
n_b = init_seed_bank
)%>%
) make_ipm(iterations = 100,
usr_funs = list(inv_logit = inv_logit,
inv_logit_2 = inv_logit_2))
# lambda is a generic function to compute per-capita growth rates. It has a number
# of different options depending on the type of model
lambda(general_ipm)
# If we are worried about whether or not the model converged to stable
# dynamics, we can use the exported utility is_conv_to_asymptotic. The default
# tolerance for convergence is 1e-10, but can be changed with the 'tol' argument.
is_conv_to_asymptotic(general_ipm, tol = 1e-10)
<- right_ev(general_ipm)
w <- left_ev(general_ipm) v
```

Our model is now built! We can explore the asymptotic population growth rate with the `lambda()`

function, which will work on any object made my `make_ipm()`

. The same is true for `is_conv_to_asymptotic()`

, which is a helper to function to figure out if we’ve set the number of `iterations`

high enough to actually reach asymptotic population dynamics. `left_ev`

and `right_ev`

work for general deterministic IPMs as well. Stochastic versions are in the works, but are not yet implemented.

Say we wanted to calculate the mean and variance of life span conditional on initial state \(z_0\). This requires us to generate the IPM’s fundamental operator, \(N\), which is computed as follows: \(N = (I - P)^{-1}\). The following chunk is a function to compute average lifespan as a function of initial size. Note that we omit the fecundity from these calculations entirely, as our model does not assume that reproduction imposes a cost on survival.

The formula for mean lifespan is given as \(\bar{\eta}(z_0) = eN\) (where \(e\) is a constant function such that \(e(z)\equiv1\)), and the formula for its variance is \(\sigma^2_\eta(z_0) = e(2N^2-N) - (eN)^2\). Since the \(e\) function has the effect of summing columns, we’ll replace that with the *R* function `colSums`

. Our second function, `sigma_eta`

, will make use of `%^%`

from `ipmr`

, which multiples matrices by themselves, rather than the point-wise power provided by `^`

. More details on the math underlying these calculations are provided in Ellner, Childs, & Rees (2016), chapter 3.

```
<- function(ipm) {
make_N
<- ipm$sub_kernels$P
P
<- diag(nrow(P))
I <- solve(I - P)
N
return(N)
}
<- function(ipm) {
eta_bar
<- make_N(ipm)
N <- colSums(N)
out
return(as.vector(out))
}
<- function(ipm) {
sigma_eta
<- make_N(ipm)
N
<- colSums(2 * (N %^% 2L) - N) - colSums(N) ^ 2
out
return(as.vector(out))
}
<- eta_bar(general_ipm)
mean_l <- sigma_eta(general_ipm)
var_l
<- int_mesh(general_ipm)$ht_1 %>%
mesh_ps unique()
par(mfrow = c(1,2))
plot(mesh_ps, mean_l, type = "l", xlab = expression( "Initial size z"[0]))
plot(mesh_ps, var_l, type = "l", xlab = expression( "Initial size z"[0]))
```

From prior knowledge, we happen to know that even in the best conditions, *Ligustrum obtusifolium* individuals usually only live 25-50 years. It appears that our model (wildly) overestimates their average lifespan, and we’d want to think about how to re-parameterize it to more accurately capture mortality events. Our survival model would seem the most likely candidate for re-examination, particularly for young and mid-sized trees. That is a problem for another day though, and so the next section will investigate how to implement general IPMs in discretely varying environments.

Discretely varying parameters can be used to construct general IPMs with little additional effort. These are typically the result of fitting a set of fixed effects vital rate models that include both continuous predictors for size/state and categorical variables like treatment or maturation state. They can also result from mixed effects models, for example, working with conditional modes for a random intercept corresponding to year or site.

`ipmr`

refers to these as *parameter sets*, and abbreviates them `par_sets`

. For example, a random intercept for year may be denoted \(\alpha_{yr}\), where \(_{yr}\) provides an index for the different values that \(\alpha\) can take on.

If you’ve already read the Intro to `ipmr`

article and the example above, then there aren’t any new concepts to introduce here. Below is an example showing how all of these come together.

We’ll use a variation of the model above, simulating some random year-specific intercepts for growth and seed production. Parameters, functions, and kernels that are now time varying have a subscript \(x_{yr}\) appended to them.

\(n(z', t + 1) = \int_L^U P_{yr}(z', z) n(z,t)d\mathrm{z} + b(t) * \int_L^U leave\_discrete(z') \mathrm{dz'}\)

\(b(t + 1) = \int_L^Ugo\_discrete_{yr}(z) n(z,t)d\mathrm{z}+ stay\_discrete\)

\(P_{yr}(z',z) = s(z) * G_{yr}(z',z)\)

\(go\_discrete_{yr}(z) = r_{s,yr}(z) * r_r(z) * g_i\)

\(leave\_discrete(z') = e_p * r_d(z')\)

\(stay\_discrete = 0\)

The vital rate models are as follows:

survival (

`s`

): A logistic regressionExample code:

`glm(surv ~ ht_1, data = my_surv_data, family = binomial())`

Mathematical form: \(Logit(s(z)) = \alpha_s + \beta_{s,1} * z + \beta_{s,2} * z^2\)

growth (

`g`

): A linear mixed effects regression. \(f_G\) denotes a normal probability density function.example code:

`lmer(ht_2 ~ ht_1 + (1 | year), data = grow_data)`

Mathematical form:

\(\mu_{G,yr} = \alpha_G + \alpha_{G,yr} + \beta_G * z\)

\(G_{yr}(z',z) = f_G(z', \mu_{G,yr}, \sigma_G)\)

flowering probability (

`r_r`

): A logistic regressionexample code:

`glm(repro ~ ht_1, data = my_repro_data, family = binomial())`

Mathematical form: \(Logit(r_r(z)) = \alpha_{r_r} + \beta_{r_r} * z\)

seed production (

`r_s`

): A Poisson mixed effects regressionexample code:

`glmer(seeds ~ ht_1 + (1 | year), data = my_seed_data, family = poisson())`

Mathematical form: \(Log(r_{s,yr}(z)) = \alpha_{r_s} + \alpha_{r_s, yr} + \beta_{r_s} * z\)

Recruit size distribution (

`r_d`

): A normal distribution (\(f_{r_d}\)) with mean`r_d_mu`

and standard deviation`r_d_sd`

.example code:

`r_d_mu <- mean(my_recr_data$ht_2, na.rm = TRUE)`

and`r_d_sd <- sd(my_recr_data$ht_2, na.rm = TRUE)`

.Mathematical form: \(r_d(z') = f_{r_d}(z', \mu_{r_d}, \sigma_{r_d})\)

germination (

`g_i`

) and establishment (`e_p`

) are constants. The code below assumes we have our data in long format (each seed get its own row) and that successful germinations/establishments are coded as 1s, failures are 0s, and seeds we don’t know the fate of for whatever reason are`NA`

s.example code:

`g_i <- mean(my_germ_data, na.rm = TRUE)`

and`e_p <- mean(my_est_data, na.rm = TRUE)`

Mathematical form: \(g_i = 0.5067, e_p = 0.15\)

In the next chunk, we’ll set up the data list with all of our constants and make sure the names are what we want them to be. This example generates intercepts for 5 years of data. This can be altered according to your own needs. Then, we’ll define a couple functions to make the vital rate expressions easier to write.

A key aspect here is setting the names on the time-varying parameters in the `data_list`

. We are using the form `"g_int_year"`

, and substituting the values that `"year"`

can take in for the actual index. These don’t need to be numbers, they can be words, letters, or some combination of the two. For this example, the years will be represented with the values `1:5`

. If we wanted to denote the actual years of the censuses, we could switch `1:5`

to, for example, `2002:2006`

.

```
library(ipmr)
# Set up the initial population conditions and parameters
# Here, we are simulating random intercepts for growth
# and seed production, converting them to a list,
# and adding them into the list of constants. Equivalent code
# to produce the output for the output from lmer/glmer
# is in the comments next to each line
<- as.list(rnorm(5, mean = 5.781, sd = 0.9)) # as.list(unlist(ranef(my_growth_model)))
all_g_int <- as.list(rnorm(5, mean = 2.6204, sd = 0.3)) # as.list(unlist(ranef(my_seed_model)))
all_r_s_int
names(all_g_int) <- paste("g_int_", 1:5, sep = "")
names(all_r_s_int) <- paste("r_s_int_", 1:5, sep = "")
<- list(
constant_list g_slope = 0.988,
g_sd = 20.55699,
s_int = -0.352,
s_slope = 0.122,
s_slope_2 = -0.000213,
r_r_int = -11.46,
r_r_slope = 0.0835,
r_s_slope = 0.01256,
r_d_mu = 5.6655,
r_d_sd = 2.0734,
e_p = 0.15,
g_i = 0.5067
)
<- c(constant_list, all_g_int, all_r_s_int)
all_params
# The lower and upper bounds for the continuous state variable and the number
# of meshpoints for the midpoint rule integration.
<- 1.02
L <- 624
U <- 500
n
set.seed(2312)
<- runif(500)
init_pop_vec <- 20
init_seed_bank
# add some helper functions. The survival function
# in this model is a quadratic function, so we use an additional inverse logit function
# that can handle the quadratic term.
<- function(int, slope, sv) {
inv_logit 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv)))
}
<- function(int, slope, slope_2, sv) {
inv_logit_2 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv + slope_2 * sv ^ 2)))
}
```

Next, we will set up our sub-kernels. We’ll append the `_year`

suffix to the kernel `name`

, the vital rate expressions and parameter values that have time-varying components (`g_year`

, `f_s_year`

, `g_int_year`

, `f_s_int_year`

), and the call to `truncated_distributions`

so that the growth kernel is correctly specified. We’ll also pass a `list(year = 1:5))`

into the `par_set_indices`

argument of `define_kernel()`

. When building the model, `make_ipm()`

automatically expands these expressions to create 5 different expressions containing the various levels of `year`

.

```
<- init_ipm(sim_gen = "general",
general_stoch_kern_ipm di_dd = "di",
det_stoch = "stoch",
kern_param = "kern") %>%
define_kernel(
# The kernel name gets indexed by _year to denote that there
# are multiple possible kernels we can build with our parameter set.
# The _year gets substituted by the values in "par_set_indices" in the
# output, so in this example we will have P_1, P_2, P_3, P_4, and P_5
name = "P_year",
# We also add _year to "g" to signify that it is going to vary across kernels.
formula = s * g_year * d_ht,
family = "CC",
# Here, we add the suffixes again, ensuring they are expanded and replaced
# during model building by the parameter names
g_year = dnorm(ht_2, g_mu_year, g_sd),
g_mu_year = g_int_year + g_slope * ht_1,
s = inv_logit_2(s_int, s_slope, s_slope_2, ht_1),
data_list = all_params,
states = list(c('ht')),
# We set uses_par_sets to TRUE, signalling that we want to expand these
# expressions across all levels of par_set_indices.
uses_par_sets = TRUE,
par_set_indices = list(year = 1:5),
evict_cor = TRUE,
# we also add the suffix to `target` here, because the value modified by
# truncated_distributions is time-varying.
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
target = 'g_year')
%>%
) define_kernel(
# again, we append the index to the kernel name, vital rate expressions,
# and in the model formula.
name = "go_discrete_year",
formula = r_r * r_s_year * g_i * d_ht,
family = 'CD',
r_r = inv_logit(r_r_int, r_r_slope, ht_1),
# Again, we modify the left and right hand side of this expression to
# show that there is a time-varying component
r_s_year = exp(r_s_int_year + r_s_slope * ht_1),
data_list = all_params,
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = TRUE,
par_set_indices = list(year = 1:5)
%>%
) define_kernel(
# This kernel has no time-varying parameters, and so is not indexed.
name = 'stay_discrete',
# In this case, seeds in the seed bank either germinate or die, but they
# do not remain for multipe time steps. This can be adjusted as needed.
formula = 0,
# Note that now, family = "DD" becuase it denotes a discrete -> discrete transition
family = "DD",
states = list(c('b')),
# This kernel has no time-varying parameters, so we don't need to designate
# it as such.
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
# This kernel also doesn't get a index, because there are no varying parameters.
name = 'leave_discrete',
formula = e_p * r_d * d_ht,
r_d = dnorm(ht_2, r_d_mu, r_d_sd),
family = 'DC',
data_list = all_params,
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
'r_d')
%>%
) define_impl(
make_impl_args_list(
# We add suffixes to the kernel names here to make sure they match the names
# we specified above.
kernel_names = c("P_year", "go_discrete_year", "stay_discrete", "leave_discrete"),
int_rule = c(rep("midpoint", 4)),
state_start = c('ht', "ht", "b", "b"),
state_end = c('ht', "b", "b", 'ht')
)%>%
) define_domains(
ht = c(L, U, n)
%>%
) define_pop_state(
n_ht = init_pop_vec,
n_b = init_seed_bank
%>%
) make_ipm(
iterations = 100,
# We can specify a sequence of kernels to select for the simulation.
# This helps others to reproduce what we did,
# and lets us keep track of the consequences of different selection
# sequences for population dynamics.
kernel_seq = sample(1:5, size = 100, replace = TRUE),
usr_funs = list(inv_logit = inv_logit,
inv_logit_2 = inv_logit_2)
)
```

100 isn’t too many iterations, but hopefully this demonstrates how to set up and implement such a model. There are a number of slots in the output that may be useful for further analyses.

`env_seq`

: This contains a character vector which shows the sequence in which levels of the time-varying components were chosen during model iteration. We could use this reproduce the model outputs later.`pop_state$lambda`

: This shows the single timestep per-capita growth rates for the simulation.

Additionally, there are functions to compute the stochastic population growth rate (\(\lambda_s\), computed as `mean(log(pop_state$lambda))`

, burn in can be controlled with the `burn_in`

parameter), and the mean sub-kernels.

```
<- mean_kernel(general_stoch_kern_ipm)
mean_kernels <- lambda(general_stoch_kern_ipm, burn_in = 0.15) # Remove first 15% of iterations lam_s
```

We can also use continuously varying parameters to construct general IPMs. These are good tools for exploring the consequences of environmental variation on demographic rates. `ipmr`

handles these using `define_env_state()`

, which can take both functions and data and generate draws from distributions during each iteration of the model.

This example includes survival and growth models that make use of environmental covariates. The model can be written as:

\(n(z', t+1) = \int_L^U K(z',z, \theta)n(z,t)dz + B(t) * r_s * r_d * \int_L^Uf_{c_d}(z')dz'\)

\(B(t + 1) = r_e * r_s * \int_L^U c_r(z) * c_s(z)n(z,t)dz + B(t) * r_s * r_r\)

\(K(z',z,\theta) = P(z',z,\theta) + F(z',z)\)

\(P(z',z,\theta) = s(z, \theta) * G(z',z,\theta)\)

\(F(z',z) = c_r(z) * c_s(z) * c_d(z') * (1 - r_e)\)

\(\theta\) is a vector of time-varying environmental parameters. For this example, we’ll use a Gaussian distribution for temperature and a Gamma distribution for precipitation:

\(\theta_t \sim Norm(\mu = 8.9, \sigma = 1.2)\)

\(\theta_p \sim Gamma(k = 1000, \beta = 2)\)

Next, we’ll write out the actual vital rate functions in the model:

survival (

`s`

/\(s(z,\theta)\)): a logistic regression.Example model formula:

`glm(survival ~ size_1 + temp + precip, data = my_surv_data, family = binomial())`

Mathematical form: \(Logit(s(z,\theta)) = \alpha_s + \beta_s^z * z + \beta_s^t * temp + \beta_s^p * precip\)

growth (

`g`

, \(G(z',z,\theta)\)): a linear regression with a Normal error distribution (denoted \(f_G\))Example model formula:

`glm(size_2 ~ size_1 + temp + precip, data = my_grow_data)`

Mathematical form:

\(G(z',z) = f_G(z', \mu_G(z,\theta), \sigma_G)\)

\(\mu_G(z, \theta) = \alpha_G + \beta_G^z * z + \beta_G^t * temp + \beta_G^p * precip\)

flower probability (

`c_r`

/\(c_r(z)\)): A logistic regression.Example model formula:

`glm(repro ~ size_1, data = my_repro_data, family = binomial())`

Mathematical form: \(Logit(c_r(z)) = \alpha_{c} + \beta_{c_r} * z\)

seed production (

`c_s`

/\(c_s(z)\): a logistic regression.Example model formula:

`glm(flower_n ~ size_1, data = my_flower_data, family = poisson())`

Mathematical form: \(Log(c_s(z)) = \alpha_{c_s} + \beta_{c_s} * z\)

recruit sizes (

`c_d`

/\(c_d(z')\)): A Normal distribution (denoted \(f_{c_d}\))Example code: mean (

`c_d_mu`

)`mean(my_recruit_data$size_2, na.rm = TRUE)`

and standard deviation (`c_d_sd`

)`sd(my_recruit_data$size_2, na.rm = TRUE)`

Mathematical form: \(c_d(z') = f_{c_d}(z', \mu_{f_d}, \sigma_{f_d})\)

Constants: Discrete stage survival (

`r_s`

), discrete stage entrance probability (`r_e`

), discrete stage departure probability conditional on survival (`r_d`

), and probability of remaining in discrete stage (`r_r`

).

First, we’ll specify the constant parameters. We keep all values related to demography in the `data_list`

.

```
library(ipmr)
# Define the fixed parameters in a list
<- list(
constant_params s_int = -5,
s_slope = 2.2,
s_precip = 0.0002,
s_temp = -0.003,
g_int = 0.2,
g_slope = 1.01,
g_sd = 1.2,
g_temp = -0.002,
g_precip = 0.004,
c_r_int = 0.3,
c_r_slope = 0.03,
c_s_int = 0.4,
c_s_slope = 0.01,
c_d_mu = 1.1,
c_d_sd = 0.1,
r_e = 0.3,
r_d = 0.3,
r_r = 0.2,
r_s = 0.2
)
```

In addition to creating the standard `data_list`

, we need to create a function to sample the environmental covariates, and a list of parameters that generate the environmental covariates. The function needs to return a named list. The names in the returned list can be referenced in vital rate expressions, kernel formulas, etc. as if we had specified them in the `data_list`

. `make_ipm()`

only runs the functions in `define_env_state()`

once per model iteration. This ensures that parameters from joint distributions can be used consistently across kernels without losing user-any specified correlations.

```
# Now, we create a set of environmental covariates. In this example, we use
# a normal distribution for temperature and a Gamma for precipitation.
<- list(
env_params temp_mu = 8.9,
temp_sd = 1.2,
precip_shape = 1000,
precip_rate = 2
)
# We define a wrapper function that samples from these distributions
<- function(env_params) {
sample_env
# We generate one value for each covariate per iteration, and return it
# as a named list.
<- rnorm(1,
temp_now $temp_mu,
env_params$temp_sd)
env_params
<- rgamma(1,
precip_now shape = env_params$precip_shape,
rate = env_params$precip_rate)
# The vital rate expressions can now use the names "temp" and "precip"
# as if they were in the data_list.
<- list(temp = temp_now, precip = precip_now)
out
return(out)
}
# Again, we can define our own functions and pass them into calls to make_ipm. This
# isn't strictly necessary, but can make the model code more readable/less error prone.
<- function(lin_term) {
inv_logit 1/(1 + exp(-lin_term))
}
```

We are now ready to begin implementing the model. This next chunk should look familiar, with the caveat that we have now add the terms `temp`

and `precip`

to vital rates in the `P`

kernel.

```
<- init_ipm(sim_gen = "general",
general_stoch_param_model di_dd = "di",
det_stoch = "stoch",
kern_param = "param") %>%
define_kernel(
name = "P_stoch",
family = "CC",
# As in the examples above, we have to add the d_surf_area
# to ensure the integration of the functions is done.
formula = s * g * d_surf_area,
# We can reference continuously varying parameters by name
# in the vital rate expressions just as before, even though
# they are passed in define_env_state() as opposed to the kernel's
# data_list
g_mu = g_int + g_slope * surf_area_1 + g_temp * temp + g_precip * precip,
s_lin_p = s_int + s_slope * surf_area_1 + s_temp * temp + s_precip * precip,
s = inv_logit(s_lin_p),
g = dnorm(surf_area_2, g_mu, g_sd),
data_list = constant_params,
states = list(c("surf_area")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions("norm", "g")
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = "F",
family = "CC",
formula = c_r * c_s * c_d * (1 - r_e) * d_surf_area,
c_r_lin_p = c_r_int + c_r_slope * surf_area_1,
c_r = inv_logit(c_r_lin_p),
c_s = exp(c_s_int + c_s_slope * surf_area_1),
c_d = dnorm(surf_area_2, c_d_mu, c_d_sd),
data_list = constant_params,
states = list(c("surf_area")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions("norm", "c_d")
%>%
) define_kernel(
# Name can be anything, but it helps to make sure they're descriptive
name = "go_discrete",
# Family is now "CD" because it is a continuous -> discrete transition
family = "CD",
formula = r_e * r_s * c_r * c_s * d_surf_area,
c_r_lin_p = c_r_int + c_r_slope * surf_area_1,
c_r = inv_logit(c_r_lin_p),
c_s = exp(c_s_int + c_s_slope * surf_area_1),
data_list = constant_params,
states = list(c("surf_area", "sb")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
# There is not eviction to correct here, so we can set this to false
evict_cor = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = "stay_discrete",
family = "DD",
formula = r_s * r_r,
data_list = constant_params,
states = list("sb"),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = "leave_discrete",
family = "DC",
formula = r_d * r_s * c_d * d_surf_area,
c_d = dnorm(surf_area_2, c_d_mu, c_d_sd),
data_list = constant_params,
states = list(c("surf_area", "sb")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions("norm", "c_d")
%>%
) define_impl(
make_impl_args_list(
kernel_names = c("P_stoch",
"F",
"go_discrete",
"stay_discrete",
"leave_discrete"),
int_rule = rep("midpoint", 5),
state_start = c("surf_area",
"surf_area",
"surf_area",
"sb",
"sb"),
state_end = c("surf_area",
"surf_area",
"sb",
"sb",
"surf_area")
)%>%
) define_domains(
surf_area = c(0, 10, 100)
)
```

Now, we need to `define_env_state()`

. This consists of two parts - specifying expressions that generate environmental covariates, and supplying the information needed to evaluate those expressions. In this example, we want to use the `env_params`

in `sample_env`

(i.e. `sample_env(env_params)`

). `define_env_state`

uses the `data_list`

argument to supply the `env_params`

, and the call to `sample_env`

goes into the `...`

portion of the function. Here, we assign the result to `env_covs`

. The name `env_covs`

isn’t important for specifying vital rate expressions and you could call it whatever you want, but it must be named something in order to work properly. The only thing that needs to match are the names in the list that `sample_env`

returns, and the names used in the vital rate expressions/kernels.

Note that you can pass the `sample_env`

function in either the `data_list`

of `define_env_state()`

, or the `usr_funs`

argument of `make_ipm()`

.

```
# In the first version, sample_env is provided in the data_list of
# define_env_state.
<- define_env_state(
general_stoch_param_ipm proto_ipm = general_stoch_param_model,
env_covs = sample_env(env_params),
data_list = list(env_params = env_params,
sample_env = sample_env)
%>%
) define_pop_state(
n_surf_area = runif(100),
n_sb = rpois(1, 20)
%>%
) make_ipm(usr_funs = list(inv_logit = inv_logit),
iterate = TRUE,
iterations = 100)
# in the second version, sample_env is provided in the usr_funs list of
# make_ipm(). These two versions are equivalent.
<- define_env_state(
general_stoch_param_ipm proto_ipm = general_stoch_param_model,
env_covs = sample_env(env_params),
data_list = list(env_params = env_params)
%>%
) define_pop_state(
n_surf_area = runif(100),
n_sb = rpois(1, 20)
%>%
) make_ipm(usr_funs = list(inv_logit = inv_logit,
sample_env = sample_env),
iterate = TRUE,
iterations = 100)
```

Stochastic parameter-resampled models also return an `env_seq`

, but this time it will be a `data.frame`

of parameter draws rather than a character vector. We can also compute mean sub-kernels and \(\lambda_s\) as we did in the kernel-resampled models. This time, each mean kernel is computed as the average of each sub-kernel over the course of the simulation (i.e. mean of all `P`

kernels). Some sub-kernels in our example are not time-varying - they will be numerically equivalent to the sub-kernels stored in the IPM object.

```
<- general_stoch_param_ipm$env_seq
env_draws
<- mean_kernel(general_stoch_param_ipm)
mean_kerns
<- lambda(general_stoch_param_ipm)
lam_s
all.equal(mean_kerns$mean_F,
$sub_kernels$F_it_1,
general_stoch_param_ipmcheck.attributes = FALSE)
```

Sometimes, we may want to work with our sub-kernels arranged into a single block kernel. This isn’t required for any of the code in `ipmr`

, except for the `plot`

method for `general_di_det`

IPMs. Other use cases may arise for analyses not included in this package though, so below is a brief overview of how to generate those.

`make_iter_kernel()`

takes an IPM object and a vector of symbols (for interactive use) or a character version of the expression (for programming) showing where each sub-kernel should go. It works in **ROW MAJOR order**. This example will use the model from the general deterministic example at the top of the article.

First, re-run the model to create the IPM object (if you haven’t already).

```
<- list(
data_list g_int = 5.781,
g_slope = 0.988,
g_sd = 20.55699,
s_int = -0.352,
s_slope = 0.122,
s_slope_2 = -0.000213,
r_r_int = -11.46,
r_r_slope = 0.0835,
r_s_int = 2.6204,
r_s_slope = 0.01256,
r_d_mu = 5.6655,
r_d_sd = 2.0734,
e_p = 0.15,
g_i = 0.5067
)
<- 1.02
L <- 624
U <- 500
n
set.seed(2312)
<- runif(500)
init_pop_vec <- 20
init_seed_bank
# Initialize the state list and add some helper functions. The survival function
# in this model is a quadratic function.
<- function(int, slope, sv) {
inv_logit 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv)))
}
<- function(int, slope, slope_2, sv) {
inv_logit_2 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv + slope_2 * sv ^ 2)))
}
<- init_ipm(sim_gen = "general",
general_ipm di_dd = "di",
det_stoch = "det") %>%
define_kernel(
name = "P",
formula = s * g * d_ht,
family = "CC",
g = dnorm(ht_2, g_mu, g_sd),
g_mu = g_int + g_slope * ht_1,
s = inv_logit_2(s_int, s_slope, s_slope_2, ht_1),
data_list = data_list,
states = list(c('ht')),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
'g')
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = "go_discrete",
formula = r_r * r_s * g_i,
family = 'CD',
r_r = inv_logit(r_r_int, r_r_slope, ht_1),
r_s = exp(r_s_int + r_s_slope * ht_1),
data_list = data_list,
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = 'stay_discrete',
formula = 0,
family = "DD",
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
evict_cor = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = 'leave_discrete',
formula = e_p * r_d * d_ht,
r_d = dnorm(ht_2, r_d_mu, r_d_sd),
family = 'DC',
data_list = data_list,
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
'r_d')
%>%
) define_impl(
make_impl_args_list(
kernel_names = c("P", "go_discrete", "stay_discrete", "leave_discrete"),
int_rule = c(rep("midpoint", 4)),
state_start = c('ht', "ht", "b", "b"),
state_end = c('ht', "b", "b", 'ht')
)%>%
) define_domains(
ht = c(L, U, n)
%>%
) define_pop_state(
pop_vectors = list(
n_ht = init_pop_vec,
n_b = init_seed_bank
)%>%
) make_ipm(iterations = 100,
usr_funs = list(inv_logit = inv_logit,
inv_logit_2 = inv_logit_2))
```

Now, we specify which kernel belongs where in row major order, using a call to `c()`

.

```
<- make_iter_kernel(ipm = general_ipm,
mega_mat mega_mat = c(
stay_discrete, go_discrete,
leave_discrete, P
))
# These values should be almost identical, so this should ~0
Re(eigen(mega_mat[[1]])$values[1]) - lambda(general_ipm)
```

Say we wanted to program with this function. Passing bare expression is difficult programatically, and how to do that is not really within the scope of this vignette (though if you’re interested in learning how, this is a good start). `make_iter_kernel()`

also accepts text strings in the same format as above.

```
# Get the names of each sub_kernel
<- names(general_ipm$sub_kernels)
sub_k_nms
<- c(sub_k_nms[3], sub_k_nms[2], sub_k_nms[4], sub_k_nms[1])
mega_mat_text
<- make_iter_kernel(general_ipm,
mega_mat_2 mega_mat = mega_mat_text)
# Should be TRUE
identical(mega_mat, mega_mat_2)
```

`make_iter_kernel()`

can also handle cases where you need blocks of 0s or identity matrices. These are specified using `0`

for 0s, and `I`

for identity matrices. `make_iter_kernel()`

automatically works out the correct dimensions internally, so you don’t need to worry about specifying those.

Below is an example that inserts 0s and identity matrices on the off-diagonals with the `P`

kernel duplicated along the diagonal.

```
<- make_iter_kernel(general_ipm,
mega_mat mega_mat = c(P, 0,
I, P))
```

Finally, `make_iter_kernel`

supports `ipmr`

’s parameter set index syntax as well, enabling us to generate a list of mega-kernels for each combination of parameter set values. We’ll re-run the `"general_di_stoch_kern"`

example from above to demonstrate this.

```
<- as.list(rnorm(5, mean = 5.781, sd = 0.9))
all_g_int <- as.list(rnorm(5, mean = 2.6204, sd = 0.3))
all_f_s_int
names(all_g_int) <- paste("g_int_", 1:5, sep = "")
names(all_f_s_int) <- paste("f_s_int_", 1:5, sep = "")
<- list(
constant_list g_slope = 0.988,
g_sd = 20.55699,
s_int = -0.352,
s_slope = 0.122,
s_slope_2 = -0.000213,
f_r_int = -11.46,
f_r_slope = 0.0835,
f_s_slope = 0.01256,
f_d_mu = 5.6655,
f_d_sd = 2.0734,
e_p = 0.15,
g_i = 0.5067
)
<- c(constant_list, all_g_int, all_f_s_int)
all_params
<- 1.02
L <- 624
U <- 500
n
set.seed(2312)
<- runif(500)
init_pop_vec <- 20
init_seed_bank
<- function(int, slope, sv) {
inv_logit 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv)))
}
<- function(int, slope, slope_2, sv) {
inv_logit_2 1/(1 + exp(-(int + slope * sv + slope_2 * sv ^ 2)))
}
<- init_ipm(sim_gen = "general",
general_stoch_kern_ipm di_dd = "di",
det_stoch = "stoch",
kern_param = "kern") %>%
define_kernel(
name = "P_year",
formula = s * g_year * d_ht,
family = "CC",
g_year = dnorm(ht_2, g_mu_year, g_sd),
g_mu_year = g_int_year + g_slope * ht_1,
s = inv_logit_2(s_int, s_slope, s_slope_2, ht_1),
data_list = all_params,
states = list(c('ht')),
uses_par_sets = TRUE,
par_set_indices = list(year = 1:5),
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
'g_year')
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = "go_discrete_year",
formula = f_r * f_s_year * g_i * d_ht,
family = 'CD',
f_r = inv_logit(f_r_int, f_r_slope, ht_1),
f_s_year = exp(f_s_int_year + f_s_slope * ht_1),
data_list = all_params,
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = TRUE,
par_set_indices = list(year = 1:5)
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = 'stay_discrete',
formula = 0,
family = "DD",
states = list(c('b')),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = FALSE
%>%
) define_kernel(
name = 'leave_discrete',
formula = e_p * f_d * d_ht,
f_d = dnorm(ht_2, f_d_mu, f_d_sd),
family = 'DC',
data_list = all_params,
states = list(c('ht', "b")),
uses_par_sets = FALSE,
evict_cor = TRUE,
evict_fun = truncated_distributions('norm',
'f_d')
%>%
) define_impl(
make_impl_args_list(
kernel_names = c("P_year", "go_discrete_year", "stay_discrete", "leave_discrete"),
int_rule = c(rep("midpoint", 4)),
state_start = c('ht', "ht", "b", "b"),
state_end = c('ht', "b", "b", 'ht')
)%>%
) define_domains(
ht = c(L, U, n)
%>%
) define_pop_state(
n_ht = init_pop_vec,
n_b = init_seed_bank
%>%
) make_ipm(
iterations = 10,
kernel_seq = sample(1:5, size = 10, replace = TRUE),
usr_funs = list(inv_logit = inv_logit,
inv_logit_2 = inv_logit_2)
)
```

Next, we call `make_iter_kernel()`

using the kernel names like so:

```
<- make_iter_kernel(general_stoch_kern_ipm,
block_list mega_mat = c(stay_discrete, go_discrete_year,
leave_discrete, P_year))
```

`make_iter_kernel()`

also works for simple models, but assumes that all sub-kernels are combined additively (i.e. \(K(z',z) = P(z',z) + F('z,z)\)). It can handle parameter set index syntax as well, but does not require the `mega_mat`

argument, and can just be called with an IPM object.